Cantalloc Aqueducts or Puquios in Nazca

Approximately 15 minutes outside Nazca desert are the Cantalloc Aqueducts. This unique system was built to tap underwater water within the Nazca Valley. The aqueducts are an impressive feat of hydraulic engineering where the ground has been excavated with horizontal trenches and tunnels to reach subterranean aquifers that hold water deep blow and bring it to surface level. Historically the puquios have been the most consistent supply of fresh water in the region.

Each puquios is typically made up of several parts including the horizontal tunnel or gallery which is excavated laterally until it meets with the underground aquifers. The walls of the gallery are lined with river stones set without mortar to allow water to filter into the gallery. The roof is constructed of stone slabs or from wooden logs. The ojo or opening of the well is in a circular shape at the top measuring 15 meters across while at near the water measuring only 1 - 2 meters. The unique shape of the ojo allowed access to the water thus serving as a local well. The smaller opening protected the water from debris. The ojo also allowed access t the puquiso for yearly maintenance as well as allowing air and light inside for the workers.